Between 1730 and the early course of the 1740s, following his brother's murder in Dagestan, the new Iranian ruler and military genius Nader Shah led a lengthy campaign in swaths of Dagestan in order to fully conquer the region, which was met with considerable success, although he was eventually inflicted several decisive defeats by various of the ethnic groups of Dagestan, forcing him to retreat with his army.From 1747 onwards, the Iranian-ruled part of Dagestan was administered through the Derbent Khanate, with its centre at Derbent.In the 5th century AD, the Samian peregrinations took place from Ukraine to this land, they returned to their natal country by 150 BC.
The Russians intensified their hold in the region for the first time in the 18th century, when Peter the Great annexed maritime Dagestan from Safavid Persia in the course of the Russo-Persian War (1722–23).The territories were however returned to Persia in 1735 per the Treaty of Ganja.Dagestan is administratively divided into forty-one districts (raions) and ten cities/towns.The districts are further subdivided into nineteen urban-type settlements, and 363 rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.The name Dagestan referred to Dagestan Oblast during 1860 to 1920, corresponding to the southeastern part of the present-day Republic.
The current borders were created with the establishment of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921, by inclusion of the eastern part of Terek Oblast, which is not "mountainous" at all but includes the Terek littoral at the southern end of the Caspian Depression. *Smaller areas along the north Caucasus are the republics: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia-Alania, Ingushetia, and Chechnya *Yellow is the Southern Federal District and Pink is the North Caucasus Federal District Dagestan has about 405 kilometers (252 mi) of coast line on the Caspian Sea.
The southernmost point of Russia is located about seven kilometers southwest of the peak.
Other important mountains are Diklosmta (4,285 m (14,058 ft)), Gora Addala Shukgelmezr (4,152 m (13,622 ft)) and Gora Dyultydag (4,127 m (13,540 ft)).
In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania (corresponding to modern Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan) became a vassal and eventually subordinate to the Parthian Empire.
With the advent of the Sassanian Empire, it became a satrapy (province) within the vast domains of the empire.
By the 15th century, Albanian Christianity had died away, leaving a 10th-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its existence.