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e., the mostly terrestrial birds that emerged in close proximity to the K-Pg extinction.Analysis of transposable element insertions observed in the genomes of passerines and parrots, but not in the genomes of other birds, provides strong evidence that parrots are the sister group of passerines, forming a clade Psittacopasserae, to the exclusion of the next closest group, the falcons.are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots).If so, they probably had not evolved their morphological autapomorphies yet, but were generalised arboreal birds.
The combined evidence supported the hypothesis of Psittaciformes being "near passerines", i.
Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere, as well.
The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia.
The three major clades of Neotropical parrots originated about 50 Mya (range 57–41 Mya).
A single 15 mm (0.6 in) fragment from a large lower bill (UCMP 143274), found in deposits from the Lance Creek Formation in Niobrara County, Wyoming, had been thought to be the oldest parrot fossil and is presumed to have originated from the Late Cretaceous period, which makes it about 70 million years old.
The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material.