It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south.The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.
From the next prehistoric era, the Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic, important remains survive, the greater part dated between 8000 BC and 5000 BC, such as those of Sant Gregori (Falset) and el Filador (Margalef de Montsant).The Neolithic era began in Catalonia around 5000 BC, although the population was slower to develop fixed settlements than in other places, thanks to the abundance of woods, which allowed the continuation of a fundamentally hunter-gatherer culture.During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain, whose subsequent victory led to the Nueva Planta decrees which abolished non-Castilian institutions in the Crown of Aragon, replaced Latin and other languages (such as Catalan) with Spanish in legal documents, abolished internal borders and customs except for the Basque and Navarrese territories and ended the Castilian monopoly over trade with the Spanish Empire.In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars.In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again.
Coastal trading colonies were established by the ancient Greeks, who settled around the Gulf of Roses, in Emporion (Empúries) and Roses in the 8th century BC.
The Carthaginians briefly ruled the territory in the course of the Second Punic War and traded with the surrounding Iberian population.
So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections.
is an autonomous community of Spain located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula.
Around the middle of the 7th century BC, the Iron Age arrived in Catalonia.